Title: Labour Markets Performance and Migration Flows in Arab Mediterranean Countries: Determinants and Effects Volume 3 National Background Papers Mashreq (Egypt, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria)
Author(s) / Editor(s): Jackline Wahba (Author), Mustafa Khawaja (Author), Mohammad Omari (Author), Ibrahim Saif (Author), Thoraya El-Rayyes (Author), Jad Chaaban (Author), Samir Aita (Author), Philippe Fargues (Editor), Iván Martín (Editor).
Publisher: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies – European Union
Description: The objectives of the Study are two-fold:
to analyze the key labour market determinants of migration flows from selected Arab Mediterranean Countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories), with a particular emphasis on demographic pressures, wage differentials and relative income disparities with the EU, employment policies, labour market flexibility and unemployment rates; this analysis includes the impact of migration on Arab Mediterranean Countries (AMCs) labour markets;
to propose a series of specific recommendations to improve the design of EU’s migration policies towards AMCs and policy options available to them for the management of mismatches between labour supply and demand.
Description: The Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT) is an exceptional case study in that the Palestinians inhabit an occupied territory and the project of state-building is still in the making1. One cannot appreciate the extent of the dire situation in the OPT without bearing this in mind. Since the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 and the Arab-Israeli war of 1967, Palestinians have undergone massively destabilising and profound uncertainties about their political identities.2 The Palestinian dilemma goes back to 1945 when Zionist leaders initiated a campaign for a homeland of their own, demanding all of historic Palestine. Ignoring Arab protests, Washington and Moscow backed a UN resolution calling for Palestine to be divided between Palestinians and Israelis. A war ensured between Israeli and Arab forces (the Arab League threw its support behind the Palestinian resistance). As a nation-in-the-making, Palestine was erased from the map and Israel was created. Many Palestinians were forced out of their homes to make way for the new state of Israel. The six-day war of 1967 drove another wave of Palestinian refugees from their land. These lost lands of Palestine fuelled Palestinian nationalism.3 The Palestinian struggle against the occupation has been considered as a key explanatory factor behind the emergence of the Islamistsecularist dialectic in the Occupied Territory.4 The two most significant political factions in the Palestinian arena are Fatah (meaning ‘Opening’ or ‘Conquest’ and a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini, literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement), a secular movement and Hamas (Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya, meaning ‘zeal’), the Islamic Resistance Movement.
Description: The United States, the European Union, Russia, and the United Nations — along with Israel and the Palestinian Authority — all officially support the establishment of an independent Palestinian state. This study focuses on a single analytical question: How can an independent Palestinian state, if created, be made successful? This book, a collaboration between two units of the RAND Corporation — RAND Health and the RAND Center for Middle East Public Policy — examines what it will take to put the new state on the road to stability and economic, political, and social prosperity over the first decade of its independence. The authors examine options for strengthening the governance of the new state and the structures and processes that will ensure its public safety and security. They describe approaches for promoting the state’s economic development, access to safe and adequate supplies of water, health and health care, and education, identifying ways that leverage Palestine’s many strengths and address the many challenges a new state will face. Finally, the authors estimate the investment required over the first ten years of statehood to help ensure security, build infrastructure, and facilitate the success of the new state.